Joint pain (arthralgia) is an important symptom in the diagnosis of various diseases. He was the first to say that serious changes had begun at the junction of the bones.
Usually, with arthralgia, there is no swelling, curvature, severe pain when feeling, redness. Significant restrictions on movementlarge jointsthe patient also does not complain. This is because even an X-ray does not show signs of inflammation. However, this does not make arthralgia (joint pain) innocent.symptom:can signal severe organic lesions and even diseases not related to the condition of the compound itself.
As statistics show,painvhand jointsand every second person over the age of 40 begins to have trouble with their feet. For those who have passed the 70-year stage,diseasesthe musculoskeletal system is even more common - in 90% of cases.
Causes of joint pain
One of the basicsreasonsThe problem is an infectionsharpinfection.It hurtsPain can occur both before the onset of the first symptoms of the disease and in the early stages. With an infectious lesionpainsall joints of the body. . . They maintain mobility.
Post-infectionsharpjoint pain is felt after:
- urogenital infections;
- intestinal diseases.
The causes of the disease also include: secondary syphilis, tuberculosis, endocarditis. If there are foci of chronic infections in the human body - with biliary tract, kidneys, pelvic organs, parasitic infections - it can happen.joint pain. . .
Arthralgia (joint pain) often confirms the presence of rheumatic diseases. In this case, the pain syndrome is associated with changes in weather conditions. More often, the patient feels severe discomfort in the large joints of the lower extremities. In the morning, he suffers from inability to get up immediately and walk quickly - due to pain and stiffness in the joints.
If the pain is paroxysmal, it occurs unexpectedly, intensifies during the day and lasts for several days.painsonly one joint, gouty arthritis, can be suspected (uric acid crystals accumulate in articular structures).
If the pain grows very slowly, affects large joints that are under stress (mostly the knee or hip), increases with physical strength, and / or is accompanied by morning stiffness, we can assume the development of osteoarthritis (old name of osteoarthritis), ie. , degenerative-dystrophic processes in the joint.
Common causes of joint pain:
- pathology of the thyroid gland;
- weather dependence;
- heavy metal poisoning;
- frequent physical injuries;
- long-term use of certain drugs;
Classification of joint pain
There are several classifications of joint pain. According to the localization criteria, there are:
- monoarthralgia (only one joint is affected);
- oligoarthralgia (painat the same time it is differentjoints - but not more than five);
- polyarthralgia (discomfort is present in more than 5 joints of the body).
Also, arthralgias are general and localized, depending on the location of the joints. Depending on the nature of the lesion, the pathology may be non-inflammatory and non-inflammatory.
Pain in diseases of the musculoskeletal system is conventionally divided into:
- start (appears at the very beginning of the movement);
- mechanical (training, long walks, the result of running);
- reflected (in fact, it is noted in the absence of pathological changes);
- at night (to disturb during night rest).
There may be more joint pain:
- dull and sharp;
- permanent and temporary;
- weak, moderate and intense.
Post-inflammatory and pseudoarthralgias are divided into separate groups.
Diagnosis of joint pain
Understandwhy the joints of the feet hurt,hands, the doctor prescribes the patient to undergo a series of diagnostic procedures. To begin, laboratory tests are performed:
- General blood test. This allows deviations to be detected, taking into account the nature and severity of the joint damage. An increase in the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, which confirms the presence of inflammation with a normal number of leukocytes, is a sign of rheumatic pathology. If leukocytes, on the other hand, increase, and pain in the spine and individual joints predominates, it is likely that the nature of the disease is contagious.
- Blood chemistry. During joint inflammation, they look at the level of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, total protein, seromucoid, diphenylamine reaction, as well as some other indicators that confirm the diagnosis of rheumatism.
In addition, the following exams may be scheduled:
- Radiography. It is mandatory for painful joints, because the doctor can not make a differential diagnosis without pictures and assess the degree of damage to the skeletal system.
- CT scan. Used to study the location of inflamed areas.
- Immunoelectrophoresis. An additional type of diagnosis that shows how common rheumatoid arthritis is.
- Arthroscopy. During the procedure, the specialist visually inspects the structure of the knee joint, its structure and takes a tissue sample from the desired area.
- Radionuclide scanning. It is effective in the early stages of joint diseases.
- Arthrography. The doctor places special contrast agents inside the joint (contrast may not be used). The change in the original figure allows him to judge the presence of affected parts in the hard-to-obtain parts of the compound.
If the doctor deems it necessary, a biopsy is performed.
Treatment of joint pain
TreatmentArthralgia will only be effective when doctors determine the cause of the symptom and determine which disease is developing. The patient may be prescribed to relieve inflammation:
- Hondoprotectors. They slow down the development of osteoarthritis, prevent further destruction of joint cartilage and reduce inflammation. Examples of such drugs in this group are cartilage, chondroitin and glucosamine in therapeutic doses, chondroitin sulfate 1200 mg, glucosamine 1500 mg, a combination of 2 components in capsule release form. These components activate the regenerative processes in the cartilage, due to which the pain gradually disappears, the patient's condition improves.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Eliminate pain, prevent the spread of inflammatory reactions. Normalize body temperature.
- Muscle relaxants. Designed to minimize skeletal muscle stiffness.
- Antibacterial drugs. Used for arthritis of an infectious nature.
- Vitamin and mineral complexes. Vitamins A, E, C, B group are needed for normal functioning and early recovery of joints. Selenium, calcium, etc.
- Hormones, steroids. They are used when the joint is very inflamed and drug treatment is ineffective.
In parallel with the intake of tablets, intramuscular and intravenous administration of the drug, the patient may be prescribed warming, analgesic and anti-inflammatory ointments.
If the pain is unbearable, nerve blockage may be performed. During the procedure, powerful drugs are used to help forget the symptoms of arthralgia for a long time.
Additional methods for treating joint pain include:
- physiotherapy exercises;
- hand therapy;
- tightening of joints using special equipment;
Physiotherapy procedures are indicated for the patient:
- shock wave therapy;
- ozone therapy;
- myostimulation and others.
In difficult cases, it is not possible to eliminate discomfort in one or more joints at once using non-invasive methods. Then the patient is recommended surgery. It can be:
- Arthroscopic debridement. The surgeon makes small incisions and removes dead tissue from the joint cavity. The operation involves the use of modern endoscopic equipment.
- Puncture. Using a special needle, the doctor draws the accumulated fluid without compounding.
- Periarticular osteotomy. To reduce the load on the affected joint and improve mobility, the doctor files a file to enlarge the articular bones at a certain angle.
- Endoprostheses. A very serious operation used only when joint recovery is not possible. Then a prosthesis is placed in its place.
The doctor decides which method of joint pain treatment is indicated for an individual patient, taking into account age, history, symptoms and some other factors.
In order not to damage the joints, it is necessary to pay maximum attention to proper nutrition. All the necessary vitamins and minerals should be in the daily diet. Harmful foods should be discarded. You need to drink about 2 liters of clean drinking water a day - it has a positive effect on the musculoskeletal system.
This is also important:
- do not overcool;
- lead an active lifestyle;
- to give up bad habits;
- sleep at least 8 hours a day;
- take regular walks in the fresh air;
- Avoid staying in one position for a long time.
If you have joint problems, you should be examined. If you suspect an inflammatory process, it is impossible to treat yourself.